Illegitimate offspring are a better investment for female house wrens

Birds have a reputation for monogamy, but it is often only an appearance. In fact, males and females alike engage in extra-pair copulations in many cases. A recent study set out to find out what’s in it for unfaithful female house wrens.

The benefit of cheating is easy to see for males: their illegitimate offspring gets reared at no expense by another pair in another nest. The rewards aren’t so obvious for the other sex. Females always provide care, and a cuckolded father might even invest less energy in the chicks; not to mention the risk of contracting STDs that comes with mating. Despite this inequality, female birds still cheat on their social mates.

House wrens are small, short-lived, passerine birds that are common throughout North America. Each year, pairs form for the breeding season, the female picking the males she desires. Males and females look alike, so she cannot assess a potential mate’s quality through showy displays or colorful attributes.

The oldest males get cuckolded the most, found the researchers. This is surprising: in the absence of other information, choosy females should consider older males better quality. This is because, well, they’re survived so far. Consistent with this, younger males also get cheated on more than intermediate aged ones.

Older birds produce lesser quality sperm. They make less of it, and it can be less motile and more mutation ridden. The clutches they produce contain fewer chicks with weaker immune systems. So why pair up with old males at all?

It turns out that female house wrens may not be as picky as we think they are. House wrens nest in cavities, and a good territory might be the most important quality for a male (the ones that have one rarely get cheated on regardless of age). However, because she won’t encounter very many mates before the breeding season, a female might just settle for the first one with a decent nesting location and start making chicks. She would then mate with the other males she encounters.

This settling and cheating strategy is a great one. The researchers found that chicks born of female extra pair mating were better quality! They were the most likely to return breeding, making more chicks themselves. Mating is a complex game, but apparently cheating pays off for female birds too.

 

Source: Bowers et al. 2015. Increased extra-pair paternity in broods of aging males and enhanced recruitment of extra-pair young in a migratory bird. Evolution.

Photo: Wikipedia commons

 

Alien Australian possums could be helpful, not harmful to recovering ecosystems in New Zealand

Horror stories of an alien species taking over and annihilating diversity in a native ecosystem have become pervasive in ecological news. This happens as our world continues to become more and more interconnected: species are moved around by humans- be it intentional or not. There are the rabbit, cane toad and camel  population sizes exploding in Australia. There are the well established parrot populations of Europe. Countless “weeds” that have pervaded native ecosystems and are thought to cause trouble.

But it could be that alien species aren’t all the bad guys we make them out to be.

This was recently shown a long term experiment on succession after landslides in New Zealand. Ecological succession is what happens when an ecosystem is deeply disturbed and recolonized by a series of plants species, one after the other. Usually mosses, grasses and sedges,”weedy” species that grow fast in poor conditions, are the first to arrive. They are followed by shrubs, then trees until a full, diverse, forest is recovered. Australian opossums introduced to New Zealand in the 1800’s were thought to hurt this process by eating native plants.

Since the possums were introduced by humans to New Zealand, they have grazed on plants that weren’t grazed on before. To see if this was disruptive, a team of researchers set out on an 11-year long experiment, taking advantage of large landslides that destroyed all vegetation in an area of the Western South island in 2002.

The scientists cleverly created plots and introduced the same vegetation in all of them, the only difference being that some of them were caged off: possum proof. They expected to the possum proof areas to  re-vegetate faster, since there would be no inappropriate grazing. However, they were surprised to see the opposite result.

Areas munched on by possums contain more of a “high quality” shrubby plant species: one that can harness nitrogen in the air to use it, also making it available to fellow plants. More plants growing also means more carbon in the ground: more biomass created and stored. Bacteria species are also more abundant and diverse in plots visited by possums. But why? It seems that the possums are grazing on grassy species, freeing up ecological space for the later species in succession. This speeds up the process, aiding in recovery and overall benefitting diversity in the system.

Careful analysis only will allow us to determine whether specific alien species are harmful to ecosystems or not. In a world where we have pervasively modified which species are present where, we should tread carefully in trying to control them. They might actually be reinforcing our efforts to restore the quality of our environment.

Let me know what you think in the comments!

 

For more on this topic I recommend a great book: The New Wild by Fred Pearce

Article: Bellingham et al. 2016 Journal of Ecology.

Image: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/Creating_habitat_for_wildlife_such_as_the_Brushtail_possum_(8065737659).jpg